Winner of the SAGE/ILTA Book Award 2016 Re-examining Language Testing explores ideas that form the foundations of language testing and assessment. The discussion is framed within the philosophical and social beliefs that have forged the practices endemic in language education and policy today. From historical and cultural perspectives, Glenn Fulcher considers the evolution of language assessment, and contrasting claims made about the nature of language and human communication, how we acquire knowledge of language abilities, and the ethics of test use. The book investigates why societies use tests, and the values that have driven changes in practice over time. The discussion is presented within an argument that an Enlightenment inspired view of human nature and advancement is most suited to a progressive, tolerant, and principled theory of language testing and validation. Covering key topics such as measurement, validity, accountability and values, Re-examining Language Testing provides a unique and innovative analysis of the ideas and social forces that shape the practice of language testing. It is an essential read for advanced undergraduate and postgraduate students of Applied Linguistics and Education. Professionals working in language testing and language teachers will also find this book invaluable.
Perform successful physical exams on children with and emphasis on technique and communicating with the child and the family. This video features experienced examiners who demonstrate how to adapt exams for children based on their reason for the visit, degree of illness, age, and developmental level. Plus, coverage of assessing uncooperative children, communicating with children to reduce anxiety, and incorporating the parents or caregivers prepares you for any situation.
Despite considerable international attention in the field of forest conservation, tropical forests are still disappearing at an unprecedented pace. This book gives an economic perspective to the analysis of deforestation. Following a survey of different deforestation definitions, theories and empirical evidence, a case-study of Ecuador provides a versatile historical picture of factors influencing forest loss throughout different periods, regions and ecosystems. Policy and market failures alone cannot explain rapid deforestation. A root cause is that, with current technologies, market prices and disparate stakeholder interests, natural forest uses in Ecuador tend to yield less income than alternative (mainly agro-pastoral) land uses. The deforestation cycle follows a composite economic rationale, based on wood extraction, agriculture and cattle ranching. Though a slower pace of deforestation seems rational for the Ecuadorean state, on the basis of precautionary considerations, substantial success in curbing forest loss can only be achieved when payments for global forest benefits are implemented, as an integral element of effective conservation incentives on the ground.
Australian Citizenship Exam Articles
Australian Citizenship Exam Books