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Passing Cisco’s CCNA and CCNP Exams: Traceroute

In preparation for your CCNA and CCNP exam success, you've got to learn to troubleshoot Cisco routers. And while ping is a great basic IP connectivity tool, it doesn't give you all the information you need to diagnose network connectivity issues. Let's say you have six routers between CityA and CityB. You send a ping from A to B, and get this return: R1#ping 172.1 Type escape sequence to abort. Sending 5, 100-byte ICMP Echos to 172.1, timeout is 2 seconds: .

Success rate is 0 percent (0/5) The five periods indicate that there is no IP connectivity to CityB. Problem is, that's about all ping tells you. You can have 5 or 50 routers between the two points, so how can you tell which downstream router has the problem? That's where traceroute comes in. Traceroute sends three datagrams with a Time To Live (TTL) of 1. Those datagrams will timeout once they hit the first router in the path, and that router will respond with an ICMP Time Exceeded message. In response, the sending router sends three more datagrams, but these have a TTL of 2. This means that the next router in line will send back ICMP Time Exceeded messages. This process continues until the final destination (CItyB) is reached the output of the command shows us the path the data took: Router1#traceroute 271.

1 Type escape sequence to abort. Tracing the route to 271.1 1 20.1 4 msec 4 msec 4 msec 2 30.

1 20 msec 16 msec 16 msec 3 271.1 16 msec * 16 msec How does this help troubleshoot a problem? Let's say that the second router in this path, 30.1, doesn't know how to get to 271. The output would look like this: Router1#traceroute 271.1 Type escape sequence to abort. Tracing the route to 271.


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